Just like in a camera, the lens is important in focusing onto objects but unless the roll inside is intact, you wont be able to take a pic. Similarly in a human eye the retina is akin to the roll of the camera which is required for receiving the light and converting it into electrical signals which are then passed onto the brain. Retina is the main sensitive layer of the eye.

Due to the retina’s vital role in vision, damage to it can cause permanent blindness. Conditions such as retinal detachment, where the retina is abnormally detached from its usual position. This causes blindness. If the patient doesn’t undergo surgery at the earliest, permanent damage may ensue.

Our Retinal Surgeons are specialized and have years of rich experience in diagnosing and treating retinal conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinal detachment, all of which can lead to vision loss or blindness.

Common retinal conditions include floaters, macular degeneration, diabetic eye disease, retinal detachment, retinal holes, lattices. There are other issues that can occur, but these conditions are some of the most common and serious that a person can experience.

Common Retinal Diseases

  • Floaters
  • Macular Degeneration
  • Diabetic Eye Disease
  • Retinal Detachment
  • How To Diagnose Retinal Diseases?
  • How Retinal Diseases Are Treated?
  • What is Diabetic Retinopathy?
  • What are the common symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy?
  • What are the Signs of Diabetic Retinopathy?
  • What is Retinal Detachment?
  • What are the types of Retinal Detachment?
  • What are the Symptoms & Signs of Retinal detachment?
  • What is AMRD?

Comprehensive Services

Comprehensive Services treats patients with disorders of the cornea and outer coats of the eye, including the conjunctiva and sclera. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur elit, sed eiusmod tempor incididunt.

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Floaters are basically black spots, lines and other things which you notice floating in front of eyes. They can also appear as white spots sometimes blurring the vision. Eye is like a ball and its shape is maintained by a Gel – Vitreous. This when undergoes secondary changes can lead to clumping and cause the floaters. However, floaters can also be the result of a torn retina. If the tear isn’t repaired, then it can lead to retinal detachment. Any kind of floater warrants immediate attention and examination by an Eye Surgeon. Any increase in density, frequency, size or association with flashes needs immediate examination.

Macular degeneration is an age-related condition of the retina that causes central vision loss. It is very common in individuals over the age of 55 years of age. However due to unhealthy lifestyle and improper food habits, this is appearing much earlier. The symptoms tend to involve blurry central vision, warped straight lines, or difficulty focusing on fine details. Blind spots can develop as the condition worsens. Fortunately, there are treatments, such as an antioxidant supplement that can slow the progression by blocking unhealthy blood vessel development. Sometimes macular degeneration may progress and may have bleeding. These conditions require urgent and immediate attention.in the form of injections or laser.

Those with diabetes are more susceptible to retinal damage. They notice blurry vision, floaters or dark spots. The good news is that laser surgery is a treatment that can help a person suffering from diabetic eye disease. It is also important to note that diabetics are also at increased risk of glaucoma and cataracts. Diabetic Retinopathy is one of the most damaging conditions of the eye. The disease per se remains silent for a long time. Patient usually remains aloof from the ongoing damage in the eye. These changes and damages can become permanent if not treated in time.

Diabetic Retinopathy is a vast subject and no amount of “Google Knowledge:” shall be able to guide you. It is better to consult you eye surgeon to gain more insight in the condition.

Retinal detachment can occur when too much fluid accumulates behind the retina, causing separation. However, there are other risk factors that increase the chances of retinal detachment. They are: Previous retinal detachment in the other eye

  • Genetic predisposition
  • Previous cataract surgery
  • The presence of other eye disorders
  • Eye injury

The presence of floaters indicates that retinal detachment may be occurring. There may also be flashes in the eye. If the condition isn’t quickly treated, it can cause permanent vision loss. If you suddenly notice floaters or you have had them and they have increased, see your doctor immediately. Other symptoms include a decrease in vision or seeing a grey curtain in your field of vision.

Retinal detachment is painless. Early symptoms of rhegmatogenous detachment may include dark or irregular vitreous floaters (particularly a sudden increase), flashes of light (photopsias), and blurred vision. As detachment progresses, the patient often notices a curtain, veil, or grayness in the field of vision. If the macula is involved, central vision becomes poor. Patients may have simultaneous vitreous hemorrhage. Traction and serous (exudative) retinal detachments can cause blurriness of vision, but they may not cause any symptoms in the early stages.

What is the treatment for Retinal detachment?

  • Sealing retinal breaks
  • Scleral buckling
  • Pneumatic retinopexy
  • Vitrectomy


The cornea is the transparent layer of the front surface of the eye. This is the surgical removal of the diseased cornea and the implantation of a healthy donor corneal tissue velit esse cillum.

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Retinal diseases can be related to aging, diabetes or other diseases, trauma to the eye, or family history. To make a diagnosis, your ophthalmologist conducts a thorough eye exam and looks for abnormalities anywhere in the eye.

The following tests may be done to determine the location and extent of the disease:

Amsler Grid Test: Your doctor may use an Amsler grid to test the clarity of your central vision. He or she will ask you if the lines of the grid seem faded, broken or distorted and will note where the distortion occurs on the grid to better understand the extent of retinal damage. If you have macular degeneration, he or she might also ask you to use this test to self-monitor your condition at home.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT): This test is an excellent technique for capturing precise images of the retina to diagnose epiretinal membranes, macular holes and macular swelling (oedema), to monitor the extent of age-related wet macular degeneration, and to monitor responses to treatment.

Fluorescein Angiography: This test uses a dye that causes blood vessels in the retina to stand out under a special light. This helps to exactly identify closed blood vessels, leaking blood vessels, new abnormal blood vessels and subtle changes in the back of the eye.

Ultrasound: This test uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasonography) to help view the retina and other structures in the eye. It can also identify certain tissue characteristics that can help in the diagnosis and treatment of eye tumours.

CT and MRI: In rare instances, these imaging methods can be used to help evaluate eye injuries or tumours.

The treatment of Retinal disease may be complex and sometimes urgent. Options include:

Using a laser: Laser surgery can repair a retinal tear or hole. Your surgeon uses a laser to heat small pinpoints on the retina. This creates scarring that usually binds (welds) the retina to the underlying tissue. Immediate laser treatment of a new retinal tear can decrease the chance of it causing a retinal detachment.

Shrinking abnormal blood vessels:Your doctor may use a technique called scatter laser photocoagulation to shrink abnormal new blood vessels that are bleeding or threatening to bleed into the eye. This treatment may help people with diabetic retinopathy. Extensive use of this treatment may cause the loss of some side (peripheral) or night vision.

Freezing: In this process, called cryopexy, your surgeon applies a freezing probe to the external wall of the eye to treat a retinal tear. Intense cold reaches the inside of the eye and freezes the retina. The treated area will later scar and secure the retina to the eye wall.

Injecting air or gas into your eye: This technique, called pneumatic retinopexy, is used to help repair certain types of retinal detachment. It can be used in combination with cryopexy or laser photocoagulation.

Indenting the surface of your eye: This surgery, called scleral buckling, is used to repair a retinal detachment. Your surgeon sews a small piece of silicone material to the outside eye surface (sclera). This indents the sclera and relieves some of the force caused by the vitreous tugging on the retina. This technique may be used with other treatments.

Evacuating and replacing the fluid in the eye: In this procedure, called vitrectomy , your surgeon removes the gel-like fluid that fills the inside of your eye (vitreous). He or she then injects air, gas or liquid into the space.

Vitrectomy:May be used if bleeding or inflammation clouds the vitreous and obstructs the surgeon’s view of the retina. This technique may be part of the treatment for people with a retinal tear, diabetic retinopathy, a macular hole, an infection, eye trauma or a retinal detachment.

Injecting medicine into the eye:Your doctor may suggest injecting medication into the vitreous in the eye. This technique may be effective in treating people with wet macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy or broken blood vessels within the eye. Various kinds of medications can be used such as Anti VEGF injections, Steroids or Antibiotics, depending upon the condition of the patient.

Implanting a retinal prosthesis: People who have severe vision loss or blindness owing to retinal disease may be a candidate for surgery. One surgical option not widely available is called retinal prosthesis.

Diabetic Retinopathy is the “disease of the retina” caused by microangiopathy due to long term effects of diabetes leading to progressive damage of the retina & blindness. The most common cause of severe bilateral visual loss in the working age group.

What are the common symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy?

Diabetic Retinopathy is asymptomatic in early stages of the disease. As the disease progresses, symptoms may include

  • Blurred vision
  • Floaters and Flashes
  • Distorted vision
  • Dark areas in the vision
  • Poor night vision
  • Impaired color vision
  • Partial or total loss of vision

What are the Signs of Diabetic Retinopathy?

The signs are:

  • Microaneurysm
  • Retinal hemorrhage
  • Hard exudates
  • Cotton wool spot
  • Venous beading
  • Intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMA)
  • Macular oedema

Retinal detachment is separation of the neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium. The most common cause is a retinal break (a tear or, less commonly, a hole) (rhegmatogenous detachment).

What are the types of Retinal Detachment?

Rhegmatogenous detachment is the most common. Risk factors include the following: Myopia, Previous cataract surgery, Ocular trauma, Lattice retinal degeneration, a family history of retinal detachmentTraction retinal detachment can be caused by vitreoretinal traction due to preretinal fibrous membranes as may occur in proliferative diabetic or sickle cell retinopathy.Serous detachment results from transudation of fluid into the subretinal space. Causes include severe uveitis, especially in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, choroidal hemangiomas, and primary or metastatic choroidal cancer.

AMRD is a condition in which there is a slow breakdown of cells in the center of the retina (the light-sensitive layers of nerve tissue at the back of the eye). This blocks vision in the center of the eye and can cause problems with activities such as reading and driving. ARMD is most often seen in people who are over the age of 50.

What are the two types of AMRD?

Dry (nonexudative or atrophic): All age-related macular degeneration (AMD) starts as the dry form. About 85% of people with AMD have only dry AMD. The loss of central vision occurs over years and is painless, and most patients retain enough vision to read and drive. Central blind spots (scotomas) usually occur late in the disease and can sometimes become severe. Symptoms are usually bilateral.

Wet (exudative or neovascular): Wet AMD occurs in about 15% of people. Rapid vision loss, usually over days to weeks, is more typical of wet AMD. The first symptom is usually visual distortion, such as a central blind spot (scotoma) or curving of straight lines (metamorphopsia). Peripheral vision and color vision are generally unaffected; however, the patient may become legally blind (< 20/200 vision) in the affected eye, particularly if AMD is not treated. Wet AMD usually affects one eye at a time; thus, symptoms of wet AMD are often unilateral.

Although only 15% of patients with AMD have the wet form, 80 to 90% of the severe vision loss caused by AMD results from wet AMD.

What is the treatment for AMRD?

The following are the various treatment modalities for AMRD:

Dietary supplements for high-risk dry or unilateral wet age-related macular degenerationIntravitreal anti vascular endothelial growth factor drugs or laser treatments for wet AMD Supportive measures such as Vitamins

More information, please book an appoinment with us to understand your eye condition and how to get it treated.

Call us on 9833976577 to speak to the Medical Director.

Disclaimer: The services mentioned and Photographs used are for representational and education purpose. The actual procedure & Result may vary from patient to patient. For more details on the topics and treatment plan, please consult with our experts at Bhalanetra Superspeciality Eye Hospital to know more.